The indirect piezoelectric effect can be used to realize motion. The maximum deformation of a piezoelectric element however is rather limited. For a stack piezo actuator, the maximum displacement is about 1 promille of its height. For a bender piezo actuator, the maximum displacement may be up to a few percent of its length.
In order to realize motion on a larger scale a piezo stage can be used that is based upon piezoelectric 'feet', that performs many small steps, in order to drive a mechanical slider. Piezo stages as such may realize both linear or rotational motion, in a single direction (1D piezo stage) or in multiple directions (XY, XYZ piezo stage). The maximum displacement that can be realized by a piezo stage typically is determined by the length of the sliders. As such linear motors may be designed up to several tens of millimeters.
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