The first piezo systems were made from natural crystals. Pierre Langevin developed an ultrasonic submarine detector from thin quartz crystals glued between two steel plates in a submersible housing. The development of sonar piezo systems has since that time never ceased.
The advances in materials science leads to the discovery of new piezoelectric materials with astonishing properties that can be easily manufactured and tailored to the needs of a particular piezo system.
First the barium titanate piezoceramics and later the lead zirconate titanate (PZT) family was developed and concurrent dopants are investigated to achieve desired properties such as piezoelectric coupling coefficients, dielectric constant, stiffness, influence on poling etc.
Not only more powerfull sonar piezo systems were developed, but also well known piezo systems like piezo ignition systems and piezo-electric phonograph pick-up.
Due to miniaturisation and Moore's law with a continuing demand for improved accuracy of manufacturing systems piezo systems are more in demand than ever. Also the harsh environmental requirements, e.g. Non magnetic, cryogenic and (ultra-high) vacuum add to the popularity of piezo systems.
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